4 Best Crypto Brokers in 2021

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Affiliate Disclosure DailyForex.com adheres to strict guidelines to preserve editorial integrity to help you make decisions with confidence. Some of the reviews and content we feature on this site are supported by affiliate partnerships from which this website may receive money. This may impact how, where and which companies / services we review and write about. Our team of experts work to continually re-evaluate the reviews and information we provide on all the top Forex / CFD brokerages featured here. Our research focuses heavily on the broker’s custody of client deposits and the breadth of its client offering. Safety is evaluated by quality and length of the broker's track record, plus the scope of regulatory standing. Major factors in determining the quality of a broker’s offer include the cost of trading, the range of instruments available to trade, and general ease of use regarding execution and market information.

The cryptocurrency market continues to gain traction, not only with social media headline-chasing retail traders, but also with professional ones and fund managers. See below the top-rated crypto trading brokers, rated by our industry experts.

1
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Most extensive crypto derivatives offering. Choice of 250+ Crypto CFDs
Multiple funding and swift withdrawal options
Ultra-low spreads across all Crypto derivatives
2
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Best social trading platform on the market
Excellent choice of options for crypto traders
3
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Marketsi strategy builder helps traders trade smarter
Competitive trade execution with low slippage
4
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
High level regulation in multiple jurisdictions
Impressive range of tradeable assets including vanilla options and gold options

Eightcap, Competitive pricing + excellent daily videos.
eToro, Best broker for social traders and crypto traders : 75% of retail CFD accounts lose money.
Markets.com, Excellent educational offerings.
AvaTrade, Highly regulated, choice of fixed or floating spreads.
Plus500, Wide range of CFDs + trailing stop losses.

Eightcap

5.0/5 in this category
In Summary
Competitive pricing + excellent daily videos

Unique Features

Headquarters

Australia

Regulation

ASIC, VFSC

Year Founded

2009

Type of Broker

None

Minimum Deposit

$100

Maximum Leverage

Maximum Leverage 1:30 (or 1:500 for non-Australia clients)

Type of Platform

MetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5

Eightcap Pros & Cons

Advantages

  • Low minimum deposit and high leverage of up to 1:500

  • Competitive cost structure

  • Excellent technology infrastructure and seasoned management team

  • Daily research and quality educational content

Disadvantages

  • Limited leverage in some areas

eToro

5.0/5 in this category
In Summary
Best broker for social traders and crypto traders : 75% of retail CFD accounts lose money

eToro offers cryptocurrency traders 93 cryptocurrency pairs, making it one of the most comprehensive selections available. It is one of the more active multi-asset CFD brokers in the cryptocurrency sector, as evident by the 2019 purchase of Danish blockchain company Firmo and Belgian crypto portfolio tracker application Delta. It also operates its US subsidiary as a crypto-only broker. With more than 13,000,000 clients as of May 2020, eToro offers traders one of the most dynamic social trading communities. The 2019 launch of its Twitter-based sentiment indicator for digital assets provides traders with one of the most-sought trading tools for the retail trading crowd.

While eToro does not support automated trading solutions, it developed its proprietary CopyTrader and CopyPortfolios for social trading enthusiasts. It neither offers the MT4/MT5 trading platforms nor deploys a dedicated crypto trading platform, but it launched its cryptocurrency wallet for Android and iOS devices. eToro optimized its products for mobile trading, the preferred choice among cryptocurrency traders. The trading community represents the most significant asset at this online broker, confirmed by the below-average research and educational sections. Traders who prefer to copy others and do not require competitive trading tools from a cutting-edge trading platform will enjoy an excellent cryptocurrency selection at eToro.

Markets.com

5.0/5 in this category
In Summary
Excellent educational offerings

Markets.com is a reliable and well-known forex broker that has been in business since 2008. This publicly traded firm is listed on the London Stock Exchange under the ticker LSE: PTEC. Users from all over the world can access Markets.com, including the United Kingdom, Cyprus, Australia, South Africa, and many more countries. They do, however, follow the FCA (Financial Conduct Authority), CySEC (Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission), ASIC (Australian Securities and Investments Commission), and FSCA (Financial Sector Conduct Authority) regulatory frameworks in these four nations (Financial Sector Conduct Authority). Traders will have no shortage of trading opportunities with over 2200 assets.

AvaTrade

4.5/5 in this category
In Summary
Highly regulated, choice of fixed or floating spreads

AvaTrade provides cryptocurrency traders with another multi-asset CFD broker after adding eleven cryptocurrency CFDs. With the popularity of trading on mobile devices, especially among those who favor crypto day trading, the AvaTradeGO mobile trading platform offers a competitive alternative. It also supports automated trading solutions via the core MT4 and MT5 trading platforms, presents manual traders with its proprietary WebTrader, and also developed AvaOptions specifically for options trading. Social traders have an excellent choice through DupliTrade, ZuluTrade and MQL5 Signal Service. Irish-based AvaTrade is home to more than 300,000 clients who may choose between fixed and floating spreads from a commission-free trading environment.

The deep liquidity and leverage of 1:25 on cryptocurrency assets for non-EU traders add a significant advantage, while EU-based traders remain limited to 1:2. AvaTrade maintains over 1,250 assets, invests in its technology infrastructure, and became one of the most-trusted brokers over the past decade. New retail traders have a quality educational section to increase their knowledge, with a dedicated one for cryptocurrencies and an explanation on all available ones. This market maker has no restrictions on crypto trading strategies and provides 24/7 trading with 24/7 support in 14 languages. Select jurisdictions qualify for a deposit bonus, offering new traders a boost to their trading career.

Plus500

4.5/5 in this category
In Summary
Wide range of CFDs + trailing stop losses

Plus500 provides traders looking for an execution-only cryptocurrency broker with fourteen assets and a commission-free pricing environment. This broker neither supports automated nor social trading, but its below-average proprietary trading platform offers a sentiment indicator, one of the most used trading tools for retail cryptocurrency traders. Over 40% of all executed trades at Plus500 are on mobile devices, another favorite with the crypto crowd. In 2018, Plus500 became a publicly listed company on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and a constituent of the FTSE 250, joining an elite and small group of brokers. This broker continues to expand its market share despite maintaining a limited product and services portfolio, which it counters with an excellent asset selection above 2,400.

This broker remains highly ranked on Google Play and the Apple App Store, with millennial traders favoring the commission-free trading environment at Plus500. Besides the absence of sophisticated trading tools, research is not available, while the educational content lacks quality and depth. Therefore, Plus500 is a suitable choice for traders who have access to an alternative, cutting-edge analytics suite and seek a broker to execute trades only. Before its initial public offering (IPO), Plus500 faced a 2012 FCA fine for misreporting transactions, followed by misleading investors in 2017 regarding its exposure to client positions.

How to Trade Cryptocurrency

The basics of trading cryptocurrency remain the same as with other assets, and before you think about how to earn money from it, you must learn. We cannot stress the education factor enough. Most rush into trading, driven by the life-changing opportunities a successful trading career brings. New traders cannot ignore the fact that between 70% and 85% of traders lose money. I firmly believe the start of any profitable trading strategy begins with education. Understanding volatility, market news and technical metrics are cornerstones on which many crypto trading strategies rely.

Embrace Volatility

Cryptocurrency markets are volatile, and wild price swings are not uncommon. I recommend that new traders learn how to embrace volatility. Do not view it as a negative but use it to your advantage. While volatility can result in trading losses for most, it does create exceptional trading opportunities for a few.

Utilize News

When it comes to news, always consider the source. Never follow someone blindly on social media because they attract followers. Quality beats quantity, and some of the most profitable trading advice or analysis remains hidden in unpopular views. Keep an open mind, monitor developments, and utilize news to create an edge in the markets.

Study Metrics

Technical analysis can offer valuable trading signals, but only if deployed and understood correctly. Since the cryptocurrency sector started to mature, price action began to respect several metrics. There is no magic tool or indicator to provide absolute accuracy. I recommend using several to confirm trends, locate entry and exit levels, determine when to be in and out of the market, and acquire an understanding of how each asset behaves.

Cryptocurrency Coin Types Available

With more than 6,955 cryptocurrency assets available, it is essential to differentiate between three distinct types of crypto assets. It will help narrow down the list to assets that fit the risk profile of individual traders.

Crypto Coins

This category includes Bitcoin, which operates on its blockchain. It also extends to Bitcoin cash, created via a hard fork from Bitcoin. Ethereum, which added smart contracts, also belongs in this group. Many projects start their journey on the Ethereum blockchain before migrating to their respective blockchains. Ripple, which cannot be mined and has a central authority, is sometimes included in this list but is a digital asset rather than a cryptocurrency.

Altcoins

Altcoins, including Litecoin, Cardano, Tron and thousands of others, emerged on their blockchain technologies. They offer an alternative to Bitcoin and a few select others. Many start their lifecycle on an established blockchain, with Ethereum a leader via its ERC-20 token, before maturing to their independent infrastructure.

dApps and Tokens

Tokens do not operate on their blockchain and may include any form of data, making their use virtually limitless. They incur fees in the cryptocurrency native to the blockchain. Tokens are usually created via public offerings to support specific projects and functionalities. Token examples are utility tokens, security tokens, asset tokens, stablecoins, payment tokens, equity tokens and non-fungible tokens (NFTs). dApps are computer applications utilizing distributed ledger technologies (DLT), led by Ethereum, Tron, and Binance.

Cryptocurrency Vocabulary

The cryptocurrency sector developed its specific terminology, and we have accumulated a list of terms that new traders should understand. Knowing the below terms will assist traders in navigating the news flow and comprehending potentially market-moving events.

Block

A block includes all transactions in the blockchain within a specific period, hashed into a Merkle tree. Depending on the technology, a block remains limited in size and secured via cryptography. It also includes the cryptographic hash of the previous block together with a time stamp.

Blockchain

The blockchain contains all blocks and continuously expands. Its design makes manipulation of individual blocks difficult but not impossible. A blockchain, maintained in a peer-to-peer network, has high Byzantine fault tolerance, and is often referred to as an open, distributed ledger. It allows permanent and verified record-keeping of transactions, and blockchain technology powers cryptocurrencies.

Cryptocurrency Exchange

A cryptocurrency exchange allows users to convert fiat currencies into cryptocurrencies. It also supports trading between various cryptocurrencies. They cater primarily to investors and provide no to limited leverage to traders but maintain the broadest asset selection.

Cryptocurrency Wallet

Physical cryptocurrencies require a wallet that stores private keys to send, receive, and maintain them. It can encrypt and decrypt transactions and sign smart contracts, making it essential to the cryptocurrency sector. There are three primary versions, a hardware wallet, a paper wallet, and a software wallet.

  1. Hardware wallet - A hardware wallet, also referred to as cold storage, is the most secure form of storing cryptocurrencies. I recommend using one to store investments or hodl coins.
  2. Paper wallet - A less convenient alternative to the hardware wallet, it compares to a fiat currency bill. Users may generate a unique private key and address, then print it on paper, and store it securely. Scanning the private key with a digital wallet will claim the funds.
  3. Software wallet - A software wallet, also known as a hot wallet, is the least secure wallet and vulnerable to hacking. I urge that trades keep a minimal amount of assets required for day-to-day transactions in a hot wallet.

Distributed Ledger

A distributed ledger is a global network of decentralized notes or computers that replicate, share, and distribute digital data. It can be private or public and can operate regardless of cryptocurrency coins.

Fork

A fork refers to a split in the blockchain to create a different version, which results in two blockchains operating simultaneously. For example, a hard fork resulted in the creation of Bitcoin Cash from Bitcoin. A hard fork refers to a permanent divergence in the blockchain. A soft fork is a temporary divergence with backward compatibly that can fail if no consensus exists, allowing the blockchain to continue.

Hashing

Hashing refers to the extraction of value from a string of text via a mathematical function. It enables securing a message or transaction so that only the intended party can read it.

ICO

An initial coin offering (ICO) allows developers to raise capital for projects. It awards tokens in the project to investors, but they remain poorly regulated, if at all, which is likely to change amid widespread fraud in the ICO market.

Token

A token can resemble anything two parties agree on and operates on top of a blockchain. The associated fees are in the native cryptocurrency of the blockchain, for example, in Ethereum.

Mining

Mining is a computer hardware-intensive process that solves complex mathematical equations to confirm transactions on the blockchain and adds new blocks. Miners will receive a reward for their efforts, and without them, the network will fail.

Cryptocurrency Margins

Cryptocurrency margins offer traders leverage and increase the purchasing power of their portfolio. Traders only pay for the margin requirement rather than the full amount. It magnifies profits and losses alike.

Transparency

Cryptocurrency transactions remain visible on a public ledger, and altering the data is extremely difficult. Therefore, the transparency of transactions, which remain irreversible, is higher than other forms of payments. Each block in the chain contains the cryptographic hash of the previous one. It adds security against tampering with the data.

What to Look for When Choosing a Cryptocurrency Broker

Trading with a cryptocurrency broker that maintains a competitive trading environment can increase the overall profitability of crypto trading strategies over the long-term. We have outlined several aspects for new traders to consider when selecting the best crypto trading platform for your needs:

Apps

Valuable apps can make the life of traders simpler. It also displays that the broker tries to grant a competitive edge to clients. I recommend trading with a cryptocurrency broker that provides excellent analysis apps together with a sentiment app. A dedicated crypto trading platform would be a priceless bonus.

Broker's History

Always check the history of a broker to identify potential red flags. I do not recommend trading with one that does not have a clean track record for at least five consecutive years.

Customer Support

While many traders never require customer support, especially at a well-managed broker, 24/7 availability and swift access show commitment by the broker.

Regulation

I recommend never trading with an unregulated broker. Always ensure that your broker maintains oversight from a regulatory authority, has a clean record and a transparent presentation of its products and services portfolio.

Deposits & Withdrawals

Make sure to have deposit and withdrawal options that suit you. Consider the costs and processing times, both from your broker and the payment processor, and the minimum requirements. Some brokers provide traders with a debit card for an improved experience.

International Presence

A broker with an international presence displays financial stability and a more mature operating environment. Some traders prefer their broker to have a local office, but I would consider this a bonus rather than a requirement.

Minimum Deposit

The smaller the minimum deposit requirement, the greater the ability to create a manageable deposit strategy. It allows traders to build a portfolio and boost the profit potential.

Funding Methods

The best crypto brokers will offer online payment processors and cryptocurrencies as funding methods. Processing times are faster, transaction costs lower, and it grants traders greater flexibility. I recommend avoiding bank wires due to unnecessary fees.

Trading Platforms

While the needs of traders differ, I recommend selecting a broker that supports automated trading solutions like MT4, the leader in this category, or cTrader, which provides an excellent alternative, or a proprietary trading platform. A dedicated crypto trading platform is beneficial, but most multi-asset brokers grant CFDs on their existing infrastructure.

Spread Type

Traders should seek cryptocurrency brokers with tight spreads, which will increase their profit per trade and make trade management more efficient. It also points to a deep liquidity pool, a requirement for crypto day trading.

Commissions & Fees

Cryptocurrency brokers with a commission structure generally provide superior spreads, and traders must do the math to determine which pricing environment benefits their trading style. I recommend a commission-based account for high-frequency traders. The best crypto brokers will offer a cashback rebate program, which lowers the final trading costs. Traders should read the terms and conditions to determine additional fees.

Crypto Trading: Pros & Cons

The maturity of the market adds to capital inflows into the cryptoverse. Bitcoin leads the sector which, as of September 2020, consisted of 6,955 known cryptocurrencies. The total number may exceed it as new projects enter the market at a fast pace. Since scams continue to plague the sector, traders should remain focused on the top 100 currencies for crypto trading. Volatility is one thing each cryptocurrency trader must be comfortable with before proceeding. Price swings of over 50% have occurred, sometimes in a matter of hours or days, and Bitcoin is prone to wild moves exceeding $2,000 per wave. It also creates exciting trading opportunities, and price action volatility persists. Unlike in the early Wild West days of the sector, the top 100 cryptocurrencies by market capitalization evolved from a fledgling asset to respect aspects of trading like support and resistance and breakouts and breakdowns, and technical indicators became more reliable to assist in the analysis, similar to fiat currencies. Trading with one of the best cryptocurrency brokers can enhance the profit opportunities for traders.

While the number of cryptocurrency exchanges continues to grow, they cater more to cryptocurrency investors. They remain ideal for those who prefer to buy and hold, or “hodl”, as it became known across the sector due to a typo on social media by an early enthusiast amid a surge in market volatility, which caught on with the crypto crowd. Cryptocurrency traders remain best served at brokers via contracts for differences (CFDs), a derivative that grants full exposure to price action without physical ownership. CFDs became the most used asset for traders, and Forex brokers started to add cryptocurrency CFDs to their asset list. Trading with a well-established one can eliminate risks like scams, frauds, and losses related to the hacking of cryptocurrency exchanges. Brokers maintain various product and services portfolios, catering to a different type of core clientele. Therefore, traders should find a crypto broker that fulfills their trading needs. Our Top List of the Best Crypto Brokers takes the guesswork out for traders seeking a reliable choice with a secure trading environment. The cryptocurrency market will only grow further. Adding this asset class to a well-diversified portfolio can boost the earning potential with one of the most exciting trading instruments created this millennium.

As with any other asset, there are always pros and cons to consider. Die-hard cryptocurrency enthusiasts have a positive confirmation bias, which leads to missed trading opportunities since they only view half of the equation. Traders must evaluate the positives and negatives of trading before deciding to add cryptocurrencies to their portfolio. Understanding both sides will allow traders to deploy multiple crypto trading strategies.

Crypto Trading – The Pros

  1. Market Disruption - Cryptocurrencies have already disrupted markets and will continue to do so by deploying blockchain technology and increasing efficiencies across multiple sectors. Despite being around for over a decade, the industry remains in its infancy with exciting opportunities ahead. Cryptocurrencies can also combat poverty and oppression. They may deliver financial services to hundreds of millions of unbanked or underbanked individuals.
  2. Privacy and Security - While most cryptocurrencies hail their privacy, it is not entirely accurate. There are privacy coins that cater to those seeking it, but many are not as private as the social media crowd misleadingly claims. There is also a significant difference between privacy and anonymity. Security remains at the forefront of cryptocurrencies, or rather the blockchain technology that powers them. A fast-growing sector churns out new projects to cater to industry-specific applications, expanding the potential to achieve privacy and security.
  3. Decentralization - Most crypto assets are less decentralized than many understand. The form of centralization differs, which makes a tremendous difference. There is no government institution, regulator, or centralized exchange with oversight and authority over the sector. It creates a notable degree of freedom for an improved global financial system. Centralization issues arise with mining clusters, where a handful of mining farms can control the course of a project, interfere with supply, and impact transaction costs. 51% of attacks are one example of it.
  4. Low Transaction Costs - While it remains asset dependent, most cryptocurrencies have low transaction costs as there are not financial intermediaries. Trading cryptocurrency CFDs on leverage will add to total trading costs related to overnight swap rates.
  5. Elevated Profit Potential - Given the tremendous opportunities ahead, the profit potential remains elevated. While a repeat of Bitcoin, which rose from a few pennies to almost $20,000 (and more gains anticipated) may not repeat itself, there are dozens of projects with excellent long-term profit potential.
  6. Volatility - Many consider volatility a negative, but skilled traders will have more trading opportunities. It can increase the overall profitability. There are crypto trading strategies developed to capture profits in volatile markets.
  7. Diversification - Cryptocurrencies offer traders diversification and indirect exposure to industries and market trends. Some serve as an inflation hedge, others as a store of value, and they provide a broad range of short-term, medium-term, and long-term investment and trading opportunities.

Crypto Trading - The Cons

  1. Acceptance - The cryptocurrency sector continues to expand its reach, but acceptance remains overall low, and the progress is slow. Social media makes it appear as if cryptocurrencies enjoy broad-based acceptance, which is misleading, but progress exists. With demand expanding, more companies will support the use of cryptocurrencies as a payment option.
  2. Illegal Activities - With the increased quasi-privacy of cryptocurrencies, a small sector engages in criminal activities. Tax evasion becomes another issue to consider, and all traders should follow their respective rules and regulations to avoid unnecessary future problems.
  3. Volatility - Included as a positive, it also serves as a negative. Most retail traders cannot stomach volatile markets, which tend to trigger their stop loss orders and wipe them out of profitable trades. Cryptocurrency traders must embrace volatility, understand it, and use it to their advantage.
  4. Misinformation - The amount of misinformation can pose a challenge for traders to separate useful and accurate information from make-believe and misleading ones. The majority of traders buy into a project without understanding why or what they have purchased. The herd mentality and fear of missing out have inflated and busted bubbles, resulting in heavy losses for more than 95% of traders.
  5. Scams - The popularity and profit-potential of cryptocurrencies attracts many scammers and fraudsters. Excellent marketing campaigns exist to lure capital out of new retail traders seeking the next breakout cryptocurrency project.
  6. Complete Loss - There is no way to recover lost assets. For example, if you store them in a cold wallet and you lose it, the assets are gone. Should you misplace recovery keys for a hot wallet, you cannot access it anymore.
  7. Technology - Traders should only trade in what they understand, and most do fulfill this requirement with cryptocurrencies and the blockchain technology that powers them. The information gap can result in avoidable losses.

Avoiding Crypto Scams

Since cryptocurrency trading gained popularity, especially among new retail traders, the sector attracted many scammers. There have been countless scams in the ICO sector, but the current trend moved towards dApps, and traders must proceed with caution. Traders should approach any offer to invest in a project that sounds too promising with extreme caution.

Selling Short Bitcoin

The most convenient and efficient instrument for short sellers in Bitcoin remain CFDs. The availability and liquidity add to the benefits of CFDs for short sellers. CFDs remain excellent derivatives for short-term traders, which many short sellers are.

Using CFD to Hodl

CFDs are leveraged derivatives that incur overnight swap rates, intended for short-term trading. Hodling is a long-term strategy conducted by buying the underlying asset. Therefore, using a CFD to hodl is counter-productive, inefficient, and not recommended.

FAQs

Is crypto trading profitable?

Crypto trading remains as profitable as any asset class and depends entirely on the trader and the deployed crypto trading strategies.

What is a crypto trade?

A crypto trade consists of either buying and selling or selling and buying a crypto asset. Unlike an investment, it intends to capture short-term price movements.

How do you trade crypto?

Trading crypto derivatives requires a trading account, either with a multi-asset broker or a dedicated crypto trading platform. Traders favoring the underlying assets should use a cryptocurrency exchange and need a cryptocurrency wallet.

Can you make money day trading crypto?

Crypto day trading can make money similar to day trading other assets. Despite the popularity of cryptocurrencies, there are no short-cuts to making money.

What is a crypto broker?

A crypto broker provides traders with cryptocurrencies, other digital assets, and a cryptocurrency wallet. The best crypto brokers also offer analytical tools, educational content, and market insights.

What is the best broker for cryptocurrency?

The best crypto brokers provide traders with a broad asset selection, a competitive trading platform, and a low-cost pricing structure. Analytical tools and market insights add to the competitiveness of a crypto broker.

Do you need a broker to trade cryptocurrency?

No, it is not a requirement. It is possible directly on an exchange or via peer-to-peer transactions, but trading with one of the best cryptocurrency brokers can offer notable advantages.

Can you buy Bitcoin through a broker?

While most brokers added Bitcoin, the majority offer it as a derivative via a CFD. It grants the same exposure to price movements but does not provide ownership of the underlying asset.

What platform can I trade cryptocurrency on?

Many proprietary trading platforms exist that support cryptocurrency trading. The MT4 and MT5 trading platforms offer it, and some brokers and FinTech companies deploy a crypto trading platform.

Which crypto exchange is the safest?

Traders should select one with an established track record, and I recommend at least five years. Most physical assets should be in cold storage, and extensive security measures must exist. It is best to avoid new crypto exchanges until they stand the test of time.

 

Huzefa Hamid

I’m a trader and manage my own capital. I trade the major Forex pairs, some Futures contracts, and I rely entirely on Technical Analysis to place my trades. Today, I am also a Senior Analyst for DailyForex.com. I began trading the markets in the early 1990s, at the age of sixteen. I had a few hundred British pounds saved up (I grew up in England), with which I was able to open a small account with some help from my Dad. I started my trading journey by buying UK equities that I had read about in the business sections of newspapers. The 1990s were a bull market, so naturally, I made money. I was fortunate enough in my early twenties to have a friend that recommended a Technical Analysis course run by a British trader who emphasized raw chart analysis without indicators. Having this first-principles approach to charts influences how I trade to this day.