Table of Contents
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Affiliate Disclosure DailyForex.com adheres to strict guidelines to preserve editorial integrity to help you make decisions with confidence. Some of the reviews and content we feature on this site are supported by affiliate partnerships from which this website may receive money. This may impact how, where and which companies / services we review and write about. Our team of experts work to continually re-evaluate the reviews and information we provide on all the top Forex / CFD brokerages featured here. Our research focuses heavily on the broker’s custody of client deposits and the breadth of its client offering. Safety is evaluated by quality and length of the broker's track record, plus the scope of regulatory standing. Major factors in determining the quality of a broker’s offer include the cost of trading, the range of instruments available to trade, and general ease of use regarding execution and market information.

Best Forex Brokers in Nigeria- Online Forex Trading in Nigeria

Finding the best Forex brokers in Nigeria is challenging, especially following the boom-and-bust cycle between 2004 and 2010. Our list of Forex brokers in Nigeria will help new traders get started with a trustworthy partner.

1
4.8/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
24/7 in-app support via the mobile app Exness Trade App.
Seychelles-regulated subsidiary for African resident traders.
2
4.8/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Cryptocurrency deposits and withdrawals with a $100 minimum deposit.
Competitive in-house research and research tools & 24/7 customer support.
3
4.7/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
50% withdrawable deposit bonus & $20 minimum deposit.
300+ assets, including 150+ equity CFDs listed on 16 exchanges.
4
4.6/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Best all around broker
High floating leverage + fast execution
5
4.5/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Two bond CFDs & a dedicated educational section on bond trading.
Excellent multi-lingual customer support in 14 languages.
6
4.4/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
ECN-style trading
Daily market research and Autochartist access
7
4.2/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Solid broker for scalping and hedging
Institutional-style trading opportunities for retail traders

  • Exness, Tight spreads + leverage up to 1:2000.
  • Dukascopy, .
  • Octa, A commission-free broker with a proprietary copy trading service.
  • FXTM, Best all-around broker with high floating leverage and fast execution.
  • AvaTrade, Highly regulated, choice of fixed or floating spreads.

Best Nigeria Brokers Comparison

Regulators
CBSC, CMA, CySEC, FCA, FSA, FSC Belize, FSC Mauritius, FSCAN/ACySEC, FSCA, MWALI International Services AuthorityCMA, CySEC, FCA, FSC Mauritius, FSCAASIC, BVI, Central Bank of Ireland, FFAJ, FSCA, KNF, MiFID
Year Established
20082004201120112006
Execution Type(s)
Market MakerECN/STPMarket MakerECN/STP, Market MakerMarket Maker
Minimum Deposit
$10 (based on the account type)
$100
$25
$200
$100
Average Trading Cost EUR/USD
0.6 pips0.3 pips ($3.00)0.9 pips0.1 pips0.9 pips
Average Trading Cost GBP/USD
0.7 pips0.8 pips ($8.00)1.3 pips0.2 pips1.5 pips
Average Trading Cost Gold
12.5 pips$0.32$0.30 $0.18 $0.29
Trading Platform(s)
MetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, Proprietary platformMetaTrader 4, Proprietary platform, Web-basedMetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, Proprietary platformMetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, Proprietary platformOther, MetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, Web-based+
Islamic Account
Negative Balance Protection
N/A

The Most Trusted Trading Platforms in Nigeria

Exness

In Summary Tight spreads + leverage up to 1:2000

Exness offers swap-free trading on many assets, making it one of the best Forex brokers in Nigeria. Traders can benefit from ultra-low commission-based trading fees, and a cutting-edge trading infrastructure features $4+ trillion in monthly trading volumes from 700,000+ active traders. Exness offers trading signals by Trading Central and market news by FX Street, MT4/MT5, its web-based Exness Terminal, and an in-house copy trading service.

As a Hong Kong-based Financial Commission member, traders get a compensation fund covering up to €20,000 per claim. Exness publishes transparent financial reports reviewed by Big Four Accountancy Deloitte and features a well-regulated trading environment.

Read more on Exness »
4.8/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • Instant withdrawals, based on the payment system, from a trusted broker with numerous payment methods
  • High level of transparency and financial audits by a Big Four accountancy firm, Deloitte
  • Multi-regulated broker
  • 24/7 multi-lingual customer service
  • No education for beginners

Dukascopy

In Summary

I rank Dukascopy highly on my best Forex brokers in Nigeria listing as it offers MT4, MT5, and JForex with multiple bonuses and income-generating programs. Traders can also request account management services from a $1,000 deposit, and Dukascopy maintains a competitive cryptocurrency infrastructure, including its Dukascoin. The volume-based rebate program lowers average Forex spreads of 0.2 pips for a minimum commission of $7.00 per 1.0 standard round lot for high-volume and high-frequency traders.

Dukascopy shines with its competitive STP/NDD/ECN environment featuring its ECN solution Swiss FX Marketplace (SWFX), connecting with 20+ banks for ultra-fast order execution and deep liquidity.

Read more on Dukascopy »
4.8/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • Numerous platforms and features
  • Both demo and Islamic accounts
  • Good customer support
  • Inability to close chat
  • Somewhat overwhelming website

Octa

In Summary A commission-free broker with a proprietary copy trading service

Octa offers swap-free trading on many liquid assets, and its commission-free trading environment begins with 0.6 pips or $6.00 per 1.0 standard round. Active traders can lower costs through the four-tier Status program. Therefore, I rank Octa as one of the best Forex brokers in Nigeria. It also maintains a high-paying affiliate program, paying up to $12 per lot.

Besides the algorithmic-enabled MT4/MT5, Octa deploys its web-based OctaTrader and mobile app. It is also an excellent choice for copy traders. Traders get an in-house copy trading service and a dedicated mobile copy trading app with a trading community exceeding 40M accounts.

Read more on Octa »
4.7/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • Quick withdrawals and deposits
  • 0% commission and no overnight charges
  • Space with personalised trading ideas
  • Customer Support 24/7
  • Mobile copy trading services available only for Android

FXTM

In Summary Best all-around broker with high floating leverage and fast execution

FXTM offers traders one of the best overall trading environments. It is also the winner of a Best Education Provider 2020 award. Given its support for 47 payment providers, including for the Nigerian Naira, FXTM is one of the leading Forex brokers for emerging and frontier markets. It caters to more than 2,000,000 traders and its corporate owner, Exinity Group, also owns Alpari. The maximum leverage of 1:2000 adds to the trading edge at FXTM, which remains one of the most competitive Forex brokers in Nigeria and a leading choice for successful Forex traders in Nigeria.

Read more on FXTM »
4.6/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • Excellent commission-based Forex pricing environment and transparency
  • Upgraded MT4/MT5 trading platforms plus proprietary mobile trading app
  • Quality market research and educational content for beginner traders
  • A highly regulated broker with a tier-1 license
  • No cryptocurrencies and limited choice of commodities

AvaTrade

In Summary Highly regulated, choice of fixed or floating spreads

Forex traders in Nigeria have access to one of the most in-depth educational offerings among all online brokers at AvaTrade. SharpTrader, the trading academy AvaTrade spun out from its brokerage unit, features more than 40 lessons and 200 videos. It is also one of the best-regulated brokers with oversight by seven regulators, including the Bank of Ireland. Nigerian traders should ensure they open an account with either the South African Financial Sector Conduct Authority (FSCA) or the British Virgin Islands Financial Services Commission (BVIFSC) for the most competitive trading environment. The minimum deposit of $100 is low enough for most retail traders to open an account with AvaTrade.

Read more on AvaTrade »
4.5/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • High quality educational offering via AvaAcademy
  • Excellent choice of trading platforms catering to various trading needs
  • Broad asset selection and cross-asset diversification opportunities
  • Well-regulated and trusted broker with oversight from a central bank
  • Trading costs competitive but nothing special

Is Forex Trading Legal in Nigeria?

The demand of Forex traders in Nigeria attracted a wave of Ponzi schemes. Confidence in the Forex market depleted as retail losses mounted. Over the past decade, well-respected international Forex brokers rebuilt trust in the most liquid financial market. Education remains key to protect new traders from frauds and scams. One of the most daunting questions for many is: how to start Forex trading in Nigeria? Forex brokers in Nigeria continue to offer educational resources, and we have researched hundreds of brokers to find the best Forex brokers in Nigeria.

Forex trading in Nigeria continues to expand, driven by millennial traders who wish to diversify their income streams. The Nigerian economy remains dependent on oil exports, the primary source of Forex income for the government. Due to the price volatility of oil, the domestic currency market is equally volatile. Therefore, the government tasked the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) to regulate foreign exchange within its borders. Numerous laws and policies exist, granting the CBN powers to regulate the Nigerian Forex market.

Here is a summary of how the Forex market evolved in Nigeria over the past 35 years:

  • 1986 - Introduction of the second-tier Forex market (SFEM)
  • 1987 - Establishment of the unified official Forex market
  • 1995 - Creation of the autonomous Forex market (AFEM)
  • 1999 - Availability of the inter-bank Forex market (IFEM)

Here is an overview of some of the most defining laws and policies granting the CBN regulatory powers:

  • The Central Bank of Nigeria Act
  • The Exchange Control Act of 1962
  • Bureau de Change 1989
  • Banks and Other Financial Institutions Act 2007
  • The Foreign Exchange (Monitoring and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act
  • The Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act

While the above cater primarily to professional and offline Forex trading in Nigeria, the rules and regulations also apply to online trading. The Association of Online Forex Trading Agents in Nigeria, recognized by the Nigerian government, works with the CBN to enhance a competitive Forex trading environment. It shows the commitment to avoid the previous boom-and-bust cycle and maintains a financially stable Forex trading environment in Nigeria.

Retail Forex trading in Nigeria is legal provided traders use their capital to trade for their benefit. Nigerian Forex traders must also pay taxes on their profits, and it is best to consult a legal professional for assistance. It follows similar regulations in most countries. Nigerians who wish to raise money from third parties and trade on their behalf require a license. Otherwise, it is illegal. One way to engage in retail account management without a license is via PAMM accounts granted by international brokers. Social trading platforms offer an additional solution for Nigerian Forex traders to earn passive income or for Nigerian followers to place capital with strategy providers. All well-established brokers accept clients from Nigeria, and there are no domestic restrictions for Nigerians to trade with an offshore broker, where the best trading conditions await.

How to Choose a Forex Broker in Nigeria

One of the often-overlooked trading tools separating those who start Forex trading from successful Forex traders in Nigeria is their Forex Broker. New traders often feel overwhelmed by the massive information and victim to marketing gimmicks by brokers. That is why we have done the hard work for you and conducted in-depth research on hundreds of Forex brokers. Our list of Forex brokers in Nigeria will ensure access to a competitive product and services portfolio with an excellent education section. It will help you get started with a reliable broker from where you can grow in a safe and trustworthy trading environment.

Here is a checklist on how to choose a Forex broker:

  1. Regulation - It is best to avoid unregulated brokers. Profitable Forex traders require a secure trading environment from a business-friendly regulator. It will provide the appropriate mix to grow as a trader. Not all regulators are suitable, but some of the most competitive ones include the ASIC, the FSCA, the BVIFSA, the FSC, the IFSC, the DFSA, and the CIMA.
  2. User Reviews - While they may provide some insight, I recommend avoiding them. Most are from traders who failed to read the terms and conditions, accepted bonuses, and violated the rules. Brokers also have their staff post fake positive reviews for them and negatives ones for competitors. Some brokers hire third parties to write on their behalf.
  3. Trading Platforms - The best choices remain an upgraded MT4 trading platform or a proprietary alternative that offers competitive trading tools. The MT4 fully supports automated trading solutions, but traders must ensure their broker offers third-party upgrades to gain an edge.
  4. Trading Fees - They will have the most visible impact on any trading strategy. I recommend an ECN account with minimum spreads from 0.0 pips to 0.1 pips and a commission of no more than $7 per round lot for active traders. I also suggest trading with a broker offering a volume-based cashback program, which will lower the final trading costs. Less active traders can start in a commission-free account, but the minimum mark-up on currency pairs should not exceed 0.7 pips.
  5. Customer Support - Most trustworthy brokers will explain their products and services transparently. It reduces the need for customer service to emergencies. Traders should look for brokers with a 24/5 multilingual customer support team, a phone number, and live chat. Both will allow traders to get in touch without delay should the need arise.
  6. Risk Management - Well-regulated brokers comply with strict financial capital requirements, grant traders negative balance protection, and an automatic stop-out level should the portfolio breach a critical balance. Traders must also deploy risk management, and brokers offer tools for it.
  7. Traded Currencies - Forex traders should look for brokers offering above 55 currency pairs to gain adequate exposure, diversify their portfolios, and find sufficient trading opportunities.

How Much Do I Need to Start Trading Forex in Nigeria?

There are some Forex and CFD brokerages which require no minimum deposit and accept Nigerian residents as customers, so in theory at least, you can trade Forex in Nigeria with as little as $1. The problem is that due to issues of leverage and currency exchange with most Forex brokers not accepting deposits directly in Nigerian Naira, it is impractical to trade Forex with much less than $100 or its equivalent. Even $100 can be problematic due to trade size and leverage issues, so it is certainly true that something close to $500 will work better.

One Forex broker with expertise in serving Nigerian resident clients is FXTM, which, unusually for a major international Forex brokerage, has a physical presence in Nigeria. FXTM requires a minimum deposit from Nigerian residents of ₦80,000.

How Can I Invest in Forex in Nigeria?

Forex trading in Nigeria is a straightforward process, but beginner traders must start by spending adequate time educating themselves.

Here is what Nigerian Forex traders should do:

  • Scams and fraud across Nigeria remain widespread, making trading with a trustworthy, regulated broker a necessary first step.
  • Evaluating the pricing environment remains the most crucial step, as it directly impacts performance, and trading costs for major currency pairs should range between $4.00 and $8.00 per 1.0 standard lot
  • The trading platform used should offer a cutting-edge infrastructure, support algorithmic trading, and preferably social trading from mobile apps, which remains widely popular among the young, tech-savvy Nigerian trader base, where MT4, cTrader, and propriety solutions lead the market.
  • Low deposit requirements from modern online payment processors will assist flexible portfolio building strategies, while cryptocurrency deposits are a bonus.
  • Forex brokers offering leverage with negative balance protection can provide traders with a distinct edge.
  • Opening and funding the trading account will grant Nigerian Forex traders access to the Forex market.

Can I Buy Nigerian Stocks Online?

The Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) lists 168 companies, and Nigerian traders can buy stocks online via 98 registered local stockbrokers.

Here is how Nigerian traders can buy stocks online:

  • Research the 98 registered stockbrokers and compare trading costs, which can have a big impact over long-term profitability in stock dealing.
  • Given the limited number of listed equities on the NSE, traders should evaluate the international offering of each broker for diversification, especially the availability of ETFs.
  • Each broker will register investors and traders with the Central Securities Clearing System (CSCS), an electronic database recording Nigerian equity ownership, which is a mandatory requirement in Nigeria
  • Opening the account, passing verification, and funding the account completes the set-up, and Nigerian investors and traders can now buy Nigerian stocks online with a broker offering trading in Nigerian stocks.
  • International traders seeking access to Nigerian stocks should consider using ETFs, which can provide the most efficient overall exposure with balanced risk.

Where Can I Learn to Trade Forex in Nigeria?

There are several institutions in Nigeria which claim to be able to train aspiring Forex traders for trading success and profit, in return for a fee covering the provision of this apparent education.

If you are looking for a place Although a few of these institutions may be sincere in their intentions, and the attempts of aspiring traders to invest in a proper trading education laudable, the fact remains that paying for Forex training in Nigeria is not recommended. Simply put, you can find everything you need to know to become a successful and profitable Forex trader for free on the internet.

Aspiring Nigerian Forex traders will see a better return from time spent reading through this site and searching through google for good material than they will see from investing in Nigerian Forex educators.

When you do find material on Forex trading strategies, ask yourself whether any supporting historical data is shown to support the claims made. If not, it is probably because whoever wrote the material has no idea whether the strategies have worked well or not, so beware.

Best Time to Trade Forex in Nigeria

One advantage that can be enjoyed for free by everyone trading Forex in Nigeria is the time zone. Nigeria is one hour ahead of London, the global center of Forex markets.

The best time to trade Forex is the time during which there is the most volume and liquidity in the market. Studies have shown that the highest volume and liquidity in the Forex market occurs during the overlap between the London and New York sessions, with both remaining relatively high until New York closes for business at the end of its day. Happily, this means that the best time to trade Forex is between 2pm and 10pm Nigerian time. This is convenient for most Nigerian Forex traders, as it means it will be easy for most to be awake during this period, and most of this time is after normal working hours, meaning that Nigerians do not have to give up their normal day jobs to day trade Forex successfully during peak market hours.

Advantages & Risks of Forex Trading in Nigeria

Advantages:

· Accessibility: allows traders in Nigeria to access global financial markets.

· Leverage: Forex traders have access to leverage via margin trading, allowing them to increase their potential profits.

· Potential for Fast Returns: Forex trading can offer fast returns for traders due to the market’s deep liquidity.

· Easier to Short Sell: short selling with forex is easier compared to the stock and commodities markets.

· Liquidity: The forex market is the largest market globally in terms of the trading volume. This means that there is almost always liquidity available for trading, especially for the major currencies.

· Low Fees and Commissions

· Availability of Automated Trading

Risks:

· Leverage: while leverage amplifies the profit of winning trades, it also amplifies losses, so it can be a double-edged sword.

· Not Available 24/7: Unlike the cryptocurrency market, forex trading is only accessible at a good price on weekdays.

Methodology

We reviewed over 100 brokers based on eleven criteria. Each research consists of over 2,000 words and lasted more than ten hours. Over 100 brokers were reviewed in-depth and from a trader's perspective, ignoring the marketing tactics deployed by some to confuse retail traders. Therefore, we sourced the list of our best copy trading platforms from more than 200,000 words of dedicated research compiled over 1,000 hours, ensuring the most comprehensive approach to identify the best Forex brokers in Nigeria.

The eleven criteria used in our research consist of:

  • Regulation and Security
  • Trading Costs
  • Asset Selection
  • Account Types
  • Trading Platforms
  • Unique Features
  • Research and Education
  • Customer Support
  • Bonuses and Promotions
  • Account Opening Process
  • Deposits & Withdrawals

Conclusion

Nigeria is home to the third-largest youth population, and with more than 186 million inhabitants, it is the most populous African country and the seventh in the world. Nigeria is also the largest economy measured by GDP in Africa and the twentieth-largest globally. Its tech-savvy young generation represents an enormous growth market for international brokers, which remains untapped. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group and the Next Eleven emerging economies. Forex trading in Nigeria presents opportunities for all market participants amid ideal conditions. With estimated daily trading volumes between ₦300-₦450 million, Nigeria can grow into a regional trading powerhouse and the most significant African Forex market.

Forex trading in Nigeria offers the fast-growing population in the seventh most populous country an unparalleled opportunity for prosperity. Nigerian Forex traders can add an active, passive, or combo revenue stream from the Forex market, the most liquid one globally. Given the size of its youth population, the third biggest among all countries, and the untapped market potential, Nigeria is ripe with opportunities for brokers, traders, and affiliates. It can become the trading hub for the African continent. To accomplish this, numerous trustworthy brokers and extensive education must flow into Nigeria. We have identified some of the best Forex brokers in Nigeria so that new traders can begin their journey with a reliable partner.

Nigerian Forex traders must understand that it requires time to learn how to trade. Patience and discipline remain two of the most defining attributes. Another essential tool is capital. Countless marketing campaigns exist, many sponsored by less trustworthy brokers, promising excessive returns from small investments over a short period. They try to lure new traders into making deposits, often resulting in total loss, scams, or fraud. Forex traders must avoid them, no matter how attractive and well-marketed they appear. They invited the Nigerian boom-and-bust cycle between 2004 and 2010, which eroded confidence in the Forex market. Therefore, opening an account with a regulated and trustworthy broker, as identified by our research, and taking your time to learn how to trade can position new traders in becoming successful Forex traders in Nigeria. All brokers on our list of Forex brokers in Nigeria provide excellent education, competitive trading tools, and an overall superb product and services portfolio.

You might also be interested in reviewing the below top brokers:

FAQs

Is Forex trading legal in Nigeria?

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Yes, Forex trading in Nigeria is legal provided traders use their capital for their benefits only. Raising money from third parties and trading on their behalf is permitted but requires a license from the Central Bank of Nigeria. All Forex traders must also ensure to pay their taxes.

How much do you need to start trading Forex in Nigeria?

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It is one of the most asked questions from traders all around the world. While there is no correct answer, traders must understand the correlation between capital and percentage gains in the portfolio. The best approach I recommend for new traders is to open a micro account and deposit no more than $100 for learning purposes. Once traders feel comfortable, they can deploy a monthly deposit strategy to increase their balance until it suffices to generate desired annualized returns.

Which broker is best for Forex in Nigeria?

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The best broker for Forex in Nigeria will provide excellent educational and trading tools. Other aspects include a competitive pricing environment and sufficient assets. A low minimum deposit and high leverage plus an upgraded trading platform are additional aspects traders should demand from their broker.

How can I invest in Forex in Nigeria?

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The most convenient and cost-efficient way is through a well-respected and trustworthy international online broker. Another option is via local banks, where online and offline Forex trading is available. A third one is through exchange offices in a traditional offline exchange. Most new Nigerian traders are tech-savvy millennials who use online brokers.

What is the best trading platform in Nigeria?

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The best trading platform in Nigeria remains the MT4 trading platform with third-party upgrades. Most brokers only provide the out-of-the-box version and refer to it as a leading, cutting-edge trading platform. Traders should understand that the core version is packed with features but is sub-standard. The versatility and upgrade opportunities make it the best choice, with more than 20,000 expert advisors (EAs) and custom upgrades available.

When can I trade Forex in Nigeria?

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As Nigeria is one hour ahead of London, and the best time to trade Forex is widely agreed to be during the New York/London overlap, followed by the later New York session, the best time to trade Forex in Nigeria will usually be between 2pm and 10pm local time. In any case, the Forex market is open in Nigeria from very early Monday morning until late Friday night.

How can I trade Forex in Nigeria?

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Work out how much capital you must start with, which should be at least $120 if you use a broker offering micro-lots of $12 if you use a broker offering nano-lots. Then use our guide to find the best Forex broker for you to choose the best broker fitting your personal circumstances.

Is Forex trading profitable in Nigeria?

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Data suggests that while about 72% of retail Forex traders fail to generate profit, the 28% who are profitable achieve this by using leverage carefully and by utilizing proven, profitable trading strategies in a disciplined way.

Can I trade Forex with Naira?

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Yes, you can trade forex with Naira. Although the Naira is not one of the major currencies in the world, some Forex brokers do accept deposits directly in Naira.

Huzefa Hamid
About Huzefa Hamid

I’m a trader and manage my own capital. I trade the major Forex pairs, some Futures contracts, and I rely entirely on Technical Analysis to place my trades. Today, I am also a Senior Analyst for DailyForex.com. I began trading the markets in the early 1990s, at the age of sixteen. I had a few hundred British pounds saved up (I grew up in England), with which I was able to open a small account with some help from my Dad. I started my trading journey by buying UK equities that I had read about in the business sections of newspapers. The 1990s were a bull market, so naturally, I made money. I was fortunate enough in my early twenties to have a friend that recommended a Technical Analysis course run by a British trader who emphasized raw chart analysis without indicators. Having this first-principles approach to charts influences how I trade to this day.