Table of Contents
Affiliate Disclosure
Affiliate Disclosure DailyForex.com adheres to strict guidelines to preserve editorial integrity to help you make decisions with confidence. Some of the reviews and content we feature on this site are supported by affiliate partnerships from which this website may receive money. This may impact how, where and which companies / services we review and write about. Our team of experts work to continually re-evaluate the reviews and information we provide on all the top Forex / CFD brokerages featured here. Our research focuses heavily on the broker’s custody of client deposits and the breadth of its client offering. Safety is evaluated by quality and length of the broker's track record, plus the scope of regulatory standing. Major factors in determining the quality of a broker’s offer include the cost of trading, the range of instruments available to trade, and general ease of use regarding execution and market information.

Automated Forex Trading Platforms & Apps

Financial markets continue to evolve, and technology is at its core. Many financial firms resemble a tech company more than a financial services firm, and FinTech drives innovation. Trading with one of the best automated Forex brokers adds to the long-term profitability, and we have identified some excellent choices.

1
4.9/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
VPS hosting with tutorial
MT4/MT5 trading platforms plus dedicated MT5 algorithmic trading introduction
2
4.9/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
VPS hosting for 24/5 low-latency Forex trading.
MT4, MT5, and cTrader for algorithmic trading.
3
4.8/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Average execution time 0.071 secs & 0.30 pips average price improvement
Deep liquidity and negative balance protection
4
4.8/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Low-cost ECN/DMA pricing model and access to deep liquidity pools
NDD execution, no requotes & low-latency data flow amid NY4 server facility
5
4.6/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Premium liquidity & raw spreads from 0.0 pips
Cutting-edge trading infrastructure & MT4/MT5 trading platforms
6
4.5/5
The ratings shown on DailyForex.com are determined by hours of research from our editorial team into over 10 factors, including account fees, deposit/withdrawal options, regulatory status, tradable assets, and more.
Excellent choice of trading instrument and competitive ECN trading fees
Superb trading infrastructure & high leverage with negative balance protection

  • AvaTrade, Highly regulated, choice of fixed or floating spreads.
  • Pepperstone, Great ECN execution on MT4 platform.
  • FXTM, Best all-around broker with high floating leverage and fast execution.
  • FP Markets, ECN trading with leverage up to 1:500.
  • Eightcap, Competitive pricing + excellent daily videos.
  • BlackBull Markets, Best ECN trading environment, with scalping and hedging.

Best Automated Brokers Comparison

Regulators
ASIC, BVI, Central Bank of Ireland, FFAJ, FSCA, KNF, MiFIDASIC, BaFin, CMA, CySEC, DFSA, FCA, SCBCMA, CySEC, FCA, FSC Mauritius, FSCAASIC, CySEC, FSCAASIC, CySEC, FCA, SCB
Year Established
20062010201120052009
Execution Type(s)
Market MakerNo Dealing Desk, NDDECN/STP, Market MakerECN/STPECN/STP, Market Maker
Minimum Deposit
$100
$200
$200
$100
$100
Average Trading Cost EUR/USD
0.9 pips1.1 pips0.1 pips1.1 pips1.0 pips
Average Trading Cost GBP/USD
1.5 pips1.6 pips0.2 pips1.4 pips1.2 pips
Average Trading Cost Gold
$0.29 $0.20 $0.18 $0.21 $0.12
Trading Platform(s)
Other, MetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, Web-based+MetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, cTrader, Trading ViewMetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, Proprietary platformMetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, cTrader, Proprietary platform, Web-basedMetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, Trading View
Islamic Account
Negative Balance Protection
N/A

AvaTrade

In Summary Highly regulated, choice of fixed or floating spreads

AvaTrade remains one of the most competitive automated Forex brokers, allowing clients to deploy any Forex trading robot operating on the MT4 and MT5 trading platforms. It also supports social trading via DupliTrade, ZuluTrade, and MQL5 Signal Service. Completing the broad choices of trading platforms are the proprietary WebTrader, AvaOptions and AvaTradeGO. The choice of fixed and floating spreads and a commission-free asset selection above 1,250 attracted over 300,000 clients to this Irish-based broker. Operational since 2006, this well-regulated market maker has excellent technology infrastructure and became one of the most transparent and trusted online multi-asset brokers with a balanced product and services portfolio ideal for all retail traders.

Read more on AvaTrade »
4.9/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • High quality educational offering via AvaAcademy
  • Excellent choice of trading platforms catering to various trading needs
  • Broad asset selection and cross-asset diversification opportunities
  • Well-regulated and trusted broker with oversight from a central bank
  • Trading costs competitive but nothing special

Pepperstone

In Summary Great ECN execution on MT4 platform

Pepperstone offers Capitalise AI, allowing algorithmic trading in a code-free environment, a competitive advantage few brokers can match. It also connects traders to deep liquidity pools and has NDD order execution with ultra-fast average order execution speeds of 30 milliseconds. The commission-based trading account features raw spreads from 0.0 pips for a commission of $7.00 per 1.0 standard round lot, and high-volume traders can lower final trading fees via a volume-based rebate program. It makes Pepperstone one of the best Forex brokers offering automated trading.

The well-balanced asset selection of 1,500+ assets includes Forex, Forex indices, cryptocurrencies, and ETFs.

Read more on Pepperstone »
4.9/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • Excellent choice of trading platforms consisting of MT4/MT5, and cTrader
  • Market-leading MT4/MT5 upgrade package, Autochartist, and API trading
  • Social trading support via Myfxbook, MetaTrader Signals, and DupliTrade
  • Leverage of up to 1:30 and superb trade execution
  • Demo accounts have 30-day time limits

FXTM

In Summary Best all-around broker with high floating leverage and fast execution

We have made FXTM one of our top-rated automated trading Forex brokers because in addition to its lengthy track record, it enjoys a very high level of regulatory oversight. In addition, it has a sterling reputation, and it offers a highly competitive fee structure which tends to keep down the cost of trading.

Traders get the core MT4/MT5 trading platforms, with full support for algorithmic and copy trading, while FXTM also features its proprietary mobile application, FXTM Trader. With 1,000+ assets, direct share investments, and in-house constructed thematic stock baskets, FXTM maintains a balanced asset selection, supplemented by quality education, research, and trading signals.

Read more on FXTM »
4.8/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • Excellent commission-based Forex pricing environment and transparency
  • Upgraded MT4/MT5 trading platforms plus proprietary mobile trading app
  • Quality market research and educational content for beginner traders
  • A highly regulated broker with a tier-1 license
  • No cryptocurrencies and limited choice of commodities

FP Markets

In Summary ECN trading with leverage up to 1:500

FP Markets is an ASIC-regulated Australian automated trading Forex broker, which launched in 2005. For most traders, the unique selling point of this broker is in the extremely wide range of tradable assets offered, providing the opportunity to trade over ten thousand individual stocks and shares including publicly quoted Hong Kong and Australian companies. FP Markets also offers 60 Forex pairs and crosses, 11 equity indices, the major commodities, and 5 cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin. FP Markets offers an unusual hybrid ECN/STP execution model, meaning their clients can choose between ECN style of execution giving a very high level of speed, and a “straight through processing” execution style which allows for more “natural” spreads.

Read more on FP Markets »
4.8/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • Choice of trading platforms and auxiliary trading tools
  • Very competitive cost structure and excellent asset selection
  • Low minimum deposit requirement and leverage of up to 1:500
  • Well-regulated and trustworthy
  • Availability of Iress geographically restricted

Eightcap

In Summary Competitive pricing + excellent daily videos

Algorithmic traders require an innovative infrastructure, excellent trade execution, deep liquidity, and low trading fees, which Eightcap provides. Forex traders can rely on the MT4 trading platform, which remains the primary choice with thousands of EAs, try its successor MT5, which requires re-coding MT4 solutions or take advantage of Capitalise AI, where traders can automate Forex strategies in a code-free environment.

Algorithmic Forex traders who require low latency 24/5 market access can qualify for free VPS hosting if they trade a minimum of five standard lots monthly. It is a generous offer with conditions most automated Forex traders easily exceed.

Read more on Eightcap »
4.6/5 in this category

Pros & Cons

  • Low minimum deposit and high leverage of up to 1:500
  • Competitive cost structure
  • Excellent technology infrastructure and seasoned management team
  • Daily research and quality educational content
  • Limited leverage in some areas

Best Automated Forex Trading Software & Apps

Our Rating
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
Full Review
Retail Loss Rate
77.0%
70.70%
71.0%
Undisclosed
Undisclosed
Regulation
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Minimum Raw Spreads
0.0 pips
0.0 pips
Not Applicable
0.0 pips
0.0 pips
Minimum Standard Spreads
1.5 pips
1.0 pips
0.9 pips
1.0 pips
0.8 pips
Minimum Commission for Forex
$0.80 perRound Lot
$6.00 per Round Lot
Commission-free
$7.00 per Round Lot
$6.00 per Round Lot
Commission for CFDs/DMA
Commission-free
0.10% or $0.03 per share
Commission-free
Commission-free
0.002%
Commission Rebates
No
No
Not Applicable
No
Yes
Minimum Deposit
$50
$100
$100
$100
$0
Demo Account
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Managed Account
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Islamic Account
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Inactivity Fee
$5 monthly after six months
No
$50 monthly after three months
No
No
Deposit Fee
Third-Party
Third-Party
Third-Party
Third-Party
Third-Party
Withdrawal Fee
Yes + Third-Party
Third-Party
Third-Party
Third-Party
Third-Party
Funding Methods
47
19
5
13
5

Asset List and Leverage Overview

BlackBull Visit Site
Currency Pairs
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
CryptocurrencyPairs
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
CommoditiesAnd Metals
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Index CFDs
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Equity CFDs
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Bonds
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
ETFs
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Options andSynthetics
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
MaximumRetail Leverage
1:2000
1:500
1:400
1:500
1:500
MaximumPro Leverage
1:2000
1:500
1:400
1:500
1:500

Overview of Automated Forex Trading Software

MT4
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
MT5
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
cTrader
No
No
No
No
No
ProprietaryPlatform
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
AutomatedTrading
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Social Trading
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
MT4/MT5Add-Ons
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
GuaranteedStop Loss
No
No
No
No
No
Negative BalanceProtection
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
UniqueFeature One
Low trading costs
MAM/PAMM Accounts
ExcellentEducation
Cutting-edgeTrading Tools
VPS Hosting
UniqueFeature Two
Trading Signals
VPS Hosting
Quality Trading Tools
MAMAccounts
API Trading

Automated Forex Trading Explained

Trading Forex manually can be exhausting and repetitive, involving analyzing charts, reading economic reports, monitoring price action, and identifying buying and selling opportunities. After placing a trade, emotional decision making displaces the best trading plan for most traders, and the long-term outcome is a loss. Between 70% and 85% of retail traders manage losing portfolios. Automated Forex trading can provide a solution.

100% automated Forex trading robots or expert advisors (EAs), as they are named on the MT4 trading platform are increasingly popular, but they neither guarantee profits nor present a one-stop solution to long-term profitability. The superior ones are expensive or remain inaccessible to the public. However, trading with one of the best automated Forex brokers adds to the long-term profitability of any automated trading strategy, and we have identified some excellent choices.

Given its popularity, there is plenty of misleading information about Forex trading robots and EAs. Current retail solutions remain simplistic and without advanced ML/AI at the core.

One of the most commonly-deployed strategies is a moving average crossover. For example, the EA will buy an asset when a fast-moving average crosses above a slow-moving average and sell when it crosses below it.

The Difference Between Automated & Manual Trading

Manual trading relies 100% on the trader who must carry out all aspects by being physically present in front of their trading desk. It requires long hours and repetitive tasks in a high-stress environment, where most allow emotions to direct trading decisions. Automated trading can bridge the challenges and help retail traders close the existing gap between professional and institutional traders.

While most retail traders have no access to sophisticated ML/AI-powered automated trading solutions, numerous competitive options allow traders to gain an edge. Retail traders seeking an edge should look for EAs that will work alongside them and help identify trading signals based on their strategy. It will take away repetitive analyses and emotion-based trading decisions while keeping the final decision in human hands. Another smart choice is an EA that monitors existing trades and adjusts take-profit and stop-loss levels after a manual trade placement.

Does Automated Trading Work? Is it Profitable?

Automated trading works, as evident by its use among financial institutions and expanding investment into sophisticated solutions. For anyone trading for a living, professional or private, automated trading, partial or full, remains a requirement in today’s markets. Retail traders who seek to upgrade their trading operations should never listen to marketing teams or reviews but test any solution in a demo account. MT4 offers back-testing capabilities, allowing traders to gather sufficient data during the limited free trial version. Coding your strategy remains the most beneficial option, but many are unable to do so. The MT4 marketplace has almost 20,000 EAs, and retail traders are likely to find what they need. I recommend taking your time to research and test before committing to a purchase. The bottom line is that automated trading works and can be profitable.

How Do I Start Automated Trading?

Traders must decide which automated Forex trading software suits their needs, as there are several options available. There are fully autonomous ones, semi-autonomous, copy trading and signal providers.

  1. Copy Trading - Copy trading allows traders to copy others. The set-up remains simple, and platform providers offer tools to safeguard, protect and alert traders. It is a low-cost alternative to automated trading.
  2. Broker-Based Automated Trading Platforms - Most brokers provide trading platforms that fully support automated trading. Traders can either code their strategy or acquire an existing solution.
  3. MT4 - MT4 remains the most popular one due to its versatile infrastructure. The MQL4 coding language allows developers to create expert advisors (EA), and many brokers offer APIs that offer more advanced solutions to connect to MT4 for order placement and management.
  4. Trading Signals - There are many signal providers, and most brokers maintain a team of analysts. While some use simple automated trading solutions to derive signals, well-established ones have human analysts for more precise trading recommendations. Traders usually have to place trades manually.
  5. Robots - Trading robots are more advanced and coded in Python, R, or C#. Most operate independently from a broker or trading platform and connect via an API.
  6. Free Automated Trading Software - Thousands of free automated trading software options exist, but most, if not all, fail to work. They only create consistent revenues for developers, and I recommend all traders avoid them.
  7. Automated Trading Apps - FinTech companies churn out automated trading apps to meet the demands of retail traders preferring to use their mobile devices. Many operate in the cloud and can offer simplistic solutions.

Top Automated Forex Trading Apps

Automated Forex trading accounts for an ever-growing share of daily trading. The evolution of machine learning and artificial intelligence has accelerated this trend, which trails equity trading, where automated trading accounts for 80%+ of all transactions.

What should Forex traders look for in automated trading solutions?

  • Consistent performance with verified track records, which are usually very difficult to obtain
  • Acceptable risk/reward ratios, sharp ratios, and drawdowns
  • Machine learning and artificial intelligence components

The above three criteria form the core of any successful automated trading solution. Unfortunately, retail traders will rarely find them in products available to them. Advertised products lack core algorithmic trading capabilities and usually remain confined to rudimentary aspects relying on technical indicators without sophistication.

Proprietary solutions exist, heavily guarded by companies who developed an edge for internal use only.

What can retail Forex traders do?

Besides developing their automated Forex trading solution, the best compromise remains social trading and creating a well-diversified trading strategy across ideas and sectors.

How to Choose an Automated Trading Program

To find the right automated trading program I recommend the following steps.

  1. Define your trading needs to find the most suitable solution.
  2. Read reviews, looking for operational issues to see what robots to avoid.
  3. Consider costs - you get what you pay for. Many free options are unreliable.
  4. Try a demo automated bot to evaluate performance and flag any issue with the code.

Expert Advisors vs. Forex Robots

Expert advisors (EAs) are specific to the MT4 and MT5 trading platforms by MetaQuotes, coded in MQL4 or MQL5, and generally less sophisticated. They operate inside the trading platform and often produce trading signals that require manual execution. Forex robots can offer notably more sophistication and include machine learning and artificial intelligence. They run independently from brokers and connect via APIs for order placement and trade management while operating without the trading platform. They generally execute without intervention if desired.

The Cost of Algorithmic Trading

Automated, or algorithmic trading, accounts for 80%+ of daily Forex trading volumes, and the MT4 trading platform remains the leading algorithmic Forex trading platform, but what about the costs of algorithmic trading?

Here is a breakdown of monthly costs algorithmic Forex traders face:

  • Algorithmic trading platform - Free, as brokers provide it at no additional cost.
  • API - Usually free, but it may have a minimum deposit requirement and minimum monthly trading volume.
  • VPS hosting - Often available free of charge at Forex brokers, but with minimum deposit and monthly trading volume requirements.
  • High-speed internet connection - Between $20 to $150 monthly, depending on geographic location and internet service provider.

The two primary non-recurring fees for algorithmic Forex traders are:

  • Developing a Forex trading strategy - The costs depend on the length it takes to develop and test a strategy and associated trading losses in a live account, which can exceed thousands of dollars.
  • Coding the strategy - It depends on the complexity of the algorithm and can cost between a few hundred to tens of thousands of dollars (high-end models can cost millions, but prices are coming down as AI-based models become more affordable).

Pros & Cons of Automated Trading

Traders must always consider both sides, which allows them to make an informed and objective decision. Here are some pros and cons to think about before deciding.

The Pros of Automated Trading

  • No emotional decision making.
  • Severe reduction of the negative impacts of trading psychology.
  • Ability to receive 24/7 market coverage, which remains asset dependent.
  • In-depth cross-asset diversification.
  • Traders may spend as little as 30 minutes in front of their trading desk per day.
  • Elimination of repetitive technical analyses.
  • Reduction in stress levels.
  • Improved trading speed and advanced order placement.

The Cons of Automated Trading

  • Retail solution cannot adapt to changing market conditions.
  • They remain based on technical analyses and fail during fundamental events.
  • Functioning solutions are expensive and out of reach for many traders.
  • Most are unprofitable.

Which Financial Markets are the Best for Using Automated Trading Software?

All markets are suitable for automated trading software, but each requires a different solution. The three most popular trade markets remain Forex, index CFDs, and cryptocurrencies. Traders must use the appropriate automated trading software with the intended market sector to achieve the best trading results.

The Advantages of Automated Forex Trading

  • Deep liquidity and high leverage.
  • 24/5 operability.
  • Volatility that creates trading opportunities.
  • Availability of the MT4 trading platform.
  • Low capital requirements to start an automated trading portfolio.
  • VPS hosting by brokers.

The Benefits of Automated CFD Trading

  • Index CFDs carry less risk than individual equity CFDs.
  • Tight spreads and low commissions.
  • Strategies developed for the market open and market close.
  • Index CFDs provide low-cost diversification and fixed trading times.

Automated Trading on Cryptocurrencies

  • Volatility creates trading opportunities.
  • Thousands of assets with increased profit potential.
  • 24/7 trading.

Forex Robot Scams

Regrettably, the automated trading scene remains littered with Forex robot scams. Using common-sense will prevent traders from falling for them. Scammers provide doctored account screenshots displaying enormous profits. Nobody would sell automated trading solutions that generate those profits. Traders should ask themselves why a Forex robot or EA is available free of charge or even for a few hundred dollars if it makes developers unheard-of returns per month. The answer is obvious. Scammers prey on the fact that up to 85% of retail traders lose money, and all seek to capitalize from the most liquid financial market in their sleep without any effort. Using automated trading solutions properly is beneficial and necessary for committed traders, but asking the impossible will always result in losses. Profit-guarantees remains another red flag to avoid together with set-and-forget solutions, which remain well-known scammer marketing methods.

The Best Times for Auto Trading

This depends on auto trading software and its sophistication. Retail solutions remain pure technical analysis versions, and the best times would be when there are no economic releases, central bank conferences, meetings, speeches, or other market-moving events. Another well-suited period for trading robots is on which has high liquidity, like the first and last hour of the Tokyo, London, and New York trading sessions.

Leverage & Automated Trading

Leverage can magnify profits and losses, and many traders fail to understand how to use high-leverage set-ups effectively in conjunction with risk management. Deploying an untested automated trading solution in a high-leverage account without constant supervision exposes the trader to avoidable losses. After testing it in a demo account and performing extensive back-tests, traders should take it into a live version with low leverage and low capital for testing in real market conditions. After enough data and trust exist, both can gradually increase to the desired levels. I recommend traders monitor their account performance and deploy stringent risk management rules during the initial set-up of any automated trading solution.

Final Thoughts

Although most trading robots tend to lose money, often quickly, there are successful hedge funds which use longer-term trading robots profitably, and there’s no reason why you can’t do the same.

You might also be interested in reviewing the below top brokers:

FAQs

Are Forex trading bots profitable?

expand.png

The long-term profitability of retail Forex trading bots is questionable at best, with many unsophisticated versions relying on scalping using the core aspects of technical analysis. Most result in losses and remain poorly coded.

Is automated trading legal?

expand.png

Automated trading is not only legal but accounts for over two-thirds of all trading activity.

What are Forex robots?

expand.png

Forex robots can either trade semi-autonomously or 100% autonomously. They take care of all trading operations from analysis to order placement through trade and risk management. While human supervision is not required, I recommend traders to monitor their Forex robots to avoid unnecessary losses and understand when to use them and when to pause them.

How do Forex robots work?

expand.png

Forex robots use technical analyses to identify trading opportunities. They then place trades and deploy user-defined risk management. Forex robots can operate without intervention, but traders should monitor the performance throughout the trading day.

Are Forex robots effective?

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Some Forex robots remain highly effective, but traders must understand their limitations and how to use them. Those who seek set-and-forget solutions will face losses. Traders generally get what they pay for, and I recommend staying away from free offers and low-cost alternatives.

What is the best automated Forex software/platform?

expand.png

The best-automated Forex trading software is the one that suits the individual trading style of Forex traders and assists in day-to-day operations rather than replaces the human aspect. The best automated Forex trading platform remains MT4 due to its infrastructure and availability at over 1,200 brokers.

Is automated forex trading a scam?

expand.png

Automated trading is not a scam, but the sector includes many scammers prying on retail traders seeking nonexistent shortcuts to profitable trading. Traders can easily avoid scammers by ignoring profit guarantees, excessive profits, free and low-priced versions, and set-and-forget solutions.

Is there an AI that trades Forex?

expand.png

Yes, there is a type of AI called machine learning which is often used to power Forex trading bots.

How much of the market is automated?

expand.png

Automated trading accounts for 80%+ of daily equity market turnover, while the Forex market sees a lower number. There is no precise data, but leading algorithmic Forex brokers report more than 60% of their trade transactions as automated.

Huzefa Hamid
About Huzefa Hamid

I’m a trader and manage my own capital. I trade the major Forex pairs, some Futures contracts, and I rely entirely on Technical Analysis to place my trades. Today, I am also a Senior Analyst for DailyForex.com. I began trading the markets in the early 1990s, at the age of sixteen. I had a few hundred British pounds saved up (I grew up in England), with which I was able to open a small account with some help from my Dad. I started my trading journey by buying UK equities that I had read about in the business sections of newspapers. The 1990s were a bull market, so naturally, I made money. I was fortunate enough in my early twenties to have a friend that recommended a Technical Analysis course run by a British trader who emphasized raw chart analysis without indicators. Having this first-principles approach to charts influences how I trade to this day.